study Abroad

Language and Literature. (LLE)

Program for Learning of the Spanish Language (SPL).

1. SPL 105: Intensive Spanish for beginners

80 contact hours, 5 credits.

2. SPL 150: Intensive Intermediate Spanish

80 contact hours, 5 credits.

3. SPL 180 Intensive Advanced Spanish

80 contact hours, 5 credits.

4. SPL 200. Conversational Spanish

80 contact hours, 5 credits.

Falta Información de cursos

Literature Program (LP).

1. LP 305: Contemporary Costa Rican Literature

40 contact hours, 3 credits.

With 100 year of existence, the Costa Rican literature has achieved critical and narrative maturity. Towards the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21th century, Costa Rica has generated relevant literary products about the national identity and globalization. Environmental conservation, politics, pollution, sexual diversity, ethics, and youth culture, are among the literary topics that help comprehend the transformation that took place during the last years in this Central American country.

2. LP 325. Gender and Narrative in Latin America

40 contact hours, 3 credits.

Feminism has impacted the cultural and literary critics, specially due to the reflection about the patriarchal society and the evidence of the gender roles, but also due to the demands for change. From the literature written by women up to the demands of the sexual minorities, we find a broad field for discussion and analysis of gender and the change that progressively has taken place in Latin America.

3. LP 350 Beyond the Magic Realism, contemporary narrative in Latin America

40 contact hours, 3 credits.

In 1996 the movement “McOndo” and the movie “El Crack”, seriously questioned the “magical realism” as a style that had defined the Latin American Literature. The ample production of novels and tales that have arisen since by authors born after the 1960 decade, moved away from the idolatry of the tropics towards a globalized and technological world full of changes. These changes lead to a deeper knowledge of the social and cultural identity which took place as a result of the incorporation of Latin American in the world dynamics.

Enviromental Awareness. (EA)

Ecology Program (EP)

1. EP 305: Terrestrial Wildlife of Costa Rica

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations – Friday to Sunday).

English taught course. The large biodiversity of tropical ecosystems is well known and Costa Rica is a good example. With a good representation of tropical rainforest (Corcovado National Park), tropical dry forest (Santa Rosa National Park) and cloud forest (Monteverde Reserve), Costa Rica stands as a natural laboratory to study and comprehend the diversity of land fauna.

2. EP 310: Tropical Ecology

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations – Friday to Sunday).

This coursed present the students with the attributes and complexities of the diverse tropical ecosystems such as tropical rainforest, coral reefs, wetlands, mangroves, tropical dry forest. Emphasis is placed on processes and on the local and large-scale connectivity of natural ecosystems, as well as the importance of these natural systems in the context of global warming.

 

3. EP 315: Marine Biology

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations – Friday to Sunday).

From bacteria and invertebrates to large marine mammals, this course centers on the immense biodiversity of tropical oceanic and coastal ecosystems. Beyond biodiversity, the course also focuses on the crucial role of the salt water masses for the stability of earth and the recent trends on sea level rise and associated impacts.

4. EP 325: Climate Change. The New History of the Earth

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations – Friday to Sunday).

Earth is not what it used to be 50 years ago and is not what it will be in the next 50 years. In this course, the current rate at which the earth is changing will be studied, along with its effects on global climate and sea level rise, consequences that are associated with world crises such as flooding, tornadoes, droughts, desertification and shifts in rain patterns. Emphasis will be placed on the impacts of these changes, in the mid and long term, on the human population.

5. EP 335: Volcanism in Costa Rica. The Pacific Ring of Fire

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations – Friday to Sunday).

Costa Rica is an active volcanic country, with 5 volcanoes currently active and a total of 112. The volcanism is the result of the interaction of the Cocos and Caribbean tectonic plates. This course will analyze the processes by which volcanoes are formed, types of eruptions, products, cycles of activity, and positive and negative impacts on the environment and for humans. Cases will be studied about active volcanoes in Costa Rica, such as the Irazú, Arenal, and Turrialba.

6. EP 350: Introduction to Nature Video and Photography

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations – Friday to Sunday).

The exotic wildlife of Costa Rica and its particularly large biodiversity offer a natural ground for an amateur photographer. This course will work on techniques, equipment, environments, plant shooting, animal shooting, small and large formats. Students work during the course will be used for grading and exposed at the end of the course.

 

7. EP 370: Geography of Costa Rica

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations – Friday to Sunday).

Costa Rica has only 52000 km2 of land mass. However, it is one of the most diverse countries in the world. Biodiversity is the result of geographic diversity. In a very little territory the course will show the students the variety of environments and natural formations, from the marine coastal areas to the Chirripó peak (3800 m). Genesis of mountain ranges, valleys, rivers, lakes and estuarine systems will be studied. Climate diversity in Costa Rica associated to its geography will be analyzed.

Sustainability Program (SP)

1. SP 301: Environmental Evaluation and Development Planning

40 contact hours, 3 credits, no lab.

English taught course. Guides the student through the diverse methodologies for environmental evaluation in order to guarantee the reduction of negative impacts. Case studies will be analyzed, both regionally as well as from local experience. The environmental law and associated regulation will be studied and explained in the context of sustainable development for project planning.

2. SP 320: Sustainable Tourism

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations -Friday to Sunday).

Tourism has been and still does represent a pillar of the Costa Rican economy. Ecotourism, large-scale tourism, rural tourism, community tourism and medical tourism are all different models of hosting people in a country. Some of these models are key for the economic growth of cities and rural communities. This course analyzes how to carry such growth while minimizing the potential impacts associated with tourism.

3. SP 330: Principles of Sustainable Agriculture

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations -Friday to Sunday).

Tourism has been and still represents a pillar for the Costa Rican economy. Ecotourism, large scale tourism, rural tourism, community tourism, medical tourism, are different models of hosting people in a country. Some of this models are key for the economic growth of cities and rural communities. The course analyzes how to carry this out minimizing the potential impacts associated to tourism.

4. SP 360: Sustainable Development Goals and Conservation of Natural Resources

40 contact hours, 3 credits. No Lab.

The course will be based on an analysis of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) known as the “Global Goals” to end poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and tackle climate change by 2030 (UNDP, 2015). Emphasis will be placed on those that deal directly with the conservation of natural resources and their relationship to sustainable livelihoods. This course includes an analysis of innovative options, clean technologies and natural solutions for climate change adaptation needed to improve the state of natural resources and the quality of life of humans. The main challenges and conditions (enabling environment: public participation mechanisms, institutional and legal frameworks, good governance arrangements, etc.) needed in Central American countries for meeting these goals will be discussed.

History, Society and Culture (HSC)

History Program (HP)

1. HP 300: Central American development and Costa Rica: A historic overview

40 contact hours, 3 credits.

The Central American region has certain historic singularities. On one side it has a common origin during the colonial period that explains how it subsisted almost aisled from the main power centers and on the other it shows great difficulties to establish nations-states. Towards the XX century many of the states reflect critical political and social conditions such as civil wars (i.e. the Nicaraguan revolution). Costa Rica stands aside from the region in terms of social and human development and democratic stability, but shares commercial bounds. A revision of the main issues that took place in the last 200 years allows to understand the dynamics of MCCA, SIECA and SICA.

Society and Culture Program (SCP)

1. SCP 310: Pre Colombian History of Latin America, Characteristics of the Main Ethnic Groups

40 contact hours, 3 credits.

The cultural history of the Latin America has its origin in the Pre-Hispanic epoch. A revision of the classifications of the main ethnic groups present before the arrival of the Spaniards enriches the perspective that the region provides. Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas are only the tip of the iceberg of a series of ethnic groups that exist today, which are slowly being incorporated into the globalization process.

2. SCP 300: Cultural aspects of Central America and Costa Rica

40 contact hours, 3 credits.

An ample and anthropological concept of culture allows the analysis of the Central American and Costa Rican environment under different criteria. Looking beyond ethnicity, regional culture and practices provide identity for and differentiate each nation. Myths, beliefs, dances, food, festivities, artisan practices, and linguistic differences, among others, provide rich examples for understanding the lifestyle of these countries.

2. SCP 330. The Gallo Pinto traditional dish and beyond

40 contact hours, 3 credits.

The traditional food of rice and beans, which constitutes the basis of the “Tico” diet, has been proven to be a healthy and well-balanced combination of protein and carbohydrates, as well as a source of diverse fresh fruits and vegetables. This diet results in adequate growth, proper brain function, and better learning abilities, all of which are tightly linked to human development. This course will use the “Gallo Pinto” traditional dish as a basis to study how balanced nutrition helps children grow, promotes human development, stimulates economic stability and reduces poverty.

Business, Economy and Politics (BEP)

Business and Economy Program. (BEP)

1. BEP 315. Business in Costa Rica: Customs Management and International Trade

40 contact hours, 3 credits.

Foreign investment in Costa Rica is one of the main axes for the economic development of the country. Customs administration, responsibilities, and requisites of the users and a revision of the international trade platform, are key elements for decision making in the country.

2. BEP 330. Evolution of the Costa Rican Economy: From a Traditional Model to One of Collaborative Economy

40 contact hours, 3 credits.

The different economic development models adopted by the Costa Rican government since the mid 20th century provide a prospective vision of the current economic situation. A historic review leads to understanding how the collaborative economy model arises nurtured by the participation of the various social counterparts involved in this process. This model became an option for the Costa Rican society and reflects the economic conditions that prevail in the country.

Political Science Program. (PSP)

1. BEP 335. Central American Integration: Economy Society and Politics

40 contact hours, 3 credits.

The social and commercial dynamics worldwide have migrated towards regionalization, originating the necessity of different response ways to the challenges that each state must undertake. The study of the process for Central American Integration provides the student a vision of the functioning of this region in the social, economic and political arenas. The observation of opportunities and challenges in the region leads to the analysis of the actual and future state of the Central American Common Market and its effects within the world economy.

西班牙语强化课程

Intensive Spanish as a Second Language Program.

Intensive Spanish as a Second Language Program.

西班牙语强化课程

1. LLE-105 Level A1 (Access).

LLE-105 A1 级(入门)

The students are able to understand and use everyday expressions and basic phrases aimed at satisfying immediate needs. The student can interact in a simple way with their surroundings.

学生们能够理解和使用日常用语和基本短语,用简单的方式与周围环境互动,以满足简单日常交流需求。

2. LLE-110 Level A2 (Platform).

LLE-110 A1 级(进阶)

The students are able to understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate. They can communicate when carrying out simple and routine tasks.

学生们能够理解日常所需的相关领域的语句和常用表达方式,可以就日常常规活动进行交流。

3. LLE-115 Level B1 (Threshold).

LLE-115 B1 级(提升) 

The students are able to understand the main ideas of complex texts on both concrete and abstract topics, even if they are of a technical nature. They can interact with native speakers with a degree of fluency and naturalness. 学生们能够理解具体或抽象文章的主要观点,甚至包括一些技术类学术文章。学生一定程度能够 以流利、自然地西语与母语者交流。

4. LLE-120 Level B2 (Advanced).

LLE-120 B2 级(高级) 

The students are able to understand the main ideas of complex texts on both concrete and abstract topics, even if they are of a technical nature. They can produce clear, detailed texts. 学生们能够理解具体或抽象文章的主要观点,甚至包括一些技术类学术文章。学生可以撰写出明 晰、详细的文章。

5. LLE-125 Level C1 (Effective Operational Proficiency).

LLE-125 C1 级(流利)

The students are able to understand a wide variety of extensive texts with a certain level of demand, and recognize implicit meaning. They can express themselves fluently and spontaneously.

学生能够读懂各种范围广泛的具有一定难度的文章,并认识到其中的隐含意义。而且,他们可以 自如、流畅地表达自己的想法。

6. LLE-130 Level C2 (Mastery).

LLE-130 C2 级(精通)

The students are able to easily understand the Spanish language both spoken and written. The students can build the information and arguments from different sources, and present coherent summary.

学生们具有轻松使用西班牙口语和书面表达的能力,学生能够整合不同资源撰写议论文,并作出 条例分明的概述。

环境意识课程

Environmental Awareness Program.

Ecology Program (EP)

生态项目 

EP 305: Terrestrial Wildlife of Costa Rica

哥斯达黎加陆地野生动物

Costa Rica has one of the largest tropical ecosystems. It stands as a natural laboratory to study and comprehend the diversity of land fauna with its tropical rainforest, tropical dry forest, and cloud forest.

哥斯达黎加是拥有最大热带生态系统的国家之一,它是通过热带雨林、热带干森林,以及云雾森林,研究陆地动物多样性的的天然实验室。

EP 315: Marine Biology

海洋生物学 

From bacteria and invertebrates to large marine mammals, this course centers on the

immense biodiversity of tropical oceanic and coastal ecosystems. The course focuseson the crucial role of the salt-water masses for the stability of the earth.

从细菌、无脊椎动物,到大型海洋哺乳类动物,本项目聚焦于热带海洋和沿海生态系统巨大的生

物多样性,着重于海水对地球稳定性的关键作用。

EP 335: Volcanism in Costa Rica. The Pacific Ring of Fire

哥斯达黎加火山  环太平洋火山带

Costa Rica is an active volcanic country, with 112 volcanoes total, 5 of which are active.

The course will analyze the processes by which volcanoes are formed, and the positive and negative impacts.

哥斯达黎加是一个活跃的火山国家,共有112座火山,其中5座是活火山。本项目将分析火山形成

过程,以及积极、消极影响。

Sustainability Program (SP)

可持续发展项目 

1. SP 320: Sustainable Tourism

旅游业的可持续发展

Tourism has been and still representing a pillar for the Costa Rican economy. The course analyzes how to carry out minimizing the potential impacts associated to tourism.

旅游业是哥斯达黎加的标志和经济支柱。本课程分析如何最小化影响未来旅游业发展的潜在因素。

2. SP 330: Principles of Sustainable Agriculture

农业可持续发展原则 

Food security has been an ongoing challenge for humans. This course analyses the new trends for sustainable agriculture such as organic, hydroponic, water saving systems, soil management, among others.

食品安全一直是人类的挑战。本课程分析有机、水培、节水系统、土壤管理等可持续农业新趋势。

3. SP 360: Sustainable Development Goals and Conservation of Natural Resources

面向更好未来的可持续发展目标和自然资源保护 

The course will be based on an analysis of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) known as the Global Goals to end poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and tackle climate change by 2030.

本课程围绕可持续发展目标17(SDGs)展开,即众所周知的终结贫困、对抗不平等和不公正,以及应对气候变化2030的全球目标。

特殊课程 非学历项目

Special Courses Non Degree Programs.

Ecology Program (EP)

生态项目

SHORT COURSES (2 weeks)

短期课程(2周)

EP 305: Terrestrial Wildlife of Costa Rica

哥斯达黎加陆地野生动物

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations -Saturday to Sunday).

60小时,4学分,野外考察(周五到周日两个不同地点的野外考察)

English taught course. The large biodiversity of tropical ecosystems is well known and Costa Rica is a good example. With a good representation of tropical rainforest (Corcovado National Park), tropical dry forest (Santa Rosa National Park) and cloud forest (Monteverde Reserve), Costa Rica stands as a natural laboratory to study and comprehend the diversity of land fauna.

英文授课。哥斯达黎加是所处热带生态系统国家中生态多样性的知名典范。存在形式有热带雨林(Corcovado国家公园),热带干旱森林(Santa Rosa国家公园)和云雾森林(Monteverde自然保护区),哥斯达黎加是学习和领悟陆生动物群生态多样性的天然实验室。

EP 310: Tropical Ecology

热带生态学

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations -Friday to Sunday).

60小时,4学分。野外考察(周五到周日两个不同地点的野外考察)

This coursed present the students with the attributes and complexities of the diverse tropical ecosystems: tropical rainforest, coral reefs, wetlands, mangroves, tropical dry forest. Emphasis is placed on processes as well as on local and large scale connectivity of natural ecosystems.  Importance of these natural systems in the context of global warming is a class topic.

该课程呈现给学生的是多样热带生态系统的特性和复杂性:热带雨林、珊瑚礁、湿地、红树林、热带干旱树林。重点介绍自然生态系统的演化过程以及当地和生态系统大规模连通性。自然系统在全球变暖的重要性是个典型的议题。

EP 315: Marine Biology

海洋生态学

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations -Friday to Sunday).​

60小时,4学分。野外考察(周五至周日两个不同地点的野外考察)

From bacteria and invertebrates to large marine mammals, this course centers on the immense biodiversity of tropical oceanic and coastal ecosystems.  Beyond biodiversity, the course also focuses on the crucial role of the salt water masses for the stability of earth and the recent trends on sea level rise and associated impacts.

从细菌和无脊椎动物到大范围海洋哺乳动物,该课程重点介绍热带海洋和海岸生态系统的巨大生态多样性。除去生态多样性,该课程同样也聚焦在盐水质量在地球的稳定和海平面上升的新趋势和相关影响中的重要角色。

EP 325: Climate Change. The New History of the Earth

气候变化,地球的新时代

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations -Friday to Sunday).

60小时,4学分。野外考察(周五至周日两个不同地点的野外考察)

Earth is not what it used to be 50 years ago and will not either in the next 50 years. The rate at which changes severely affects global climate and sea level rise, Associated world crises such as flooding, tornados, draughts, desertification and shifts in rain patterns, will be studied as part of this course. Emphasis will be placed on the impacts of these changes, in the mid and long term, on the human population.

地球不会像过去的50年,也不会像未来的50年。全球气候变化和海平面上升产生的影响,相关的世界危机会成为学习的一部分,例如洪水、龙卷风、干旱、沙漠化和降雨的移动。着中介绍这些变化在中长期对人口的影响。

EP 335: Volcanism in Costa Rica. The Pacific Ring of Fire

哥斯达黎加火山  环太平洋火山带

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations -Friday to Sunday).

60小时,4学分。野外考察(周五至周日两个不同地点的野外考察)

Costa Rica is an active volcanic country, with 112 volcanoes and 5 active. The volcanism results from the interaction of the Cocos and Caribbean tectonic plates. The course will analyze the processes by which volcanoes are formed, types of eruptions, products, cycle of activity and periodicity, positive and negative impacts on the environment and for humans. Cases will be studied about active volcanoes in Costa Rica, such as the Irazú, Arenal and Turrialba.  

哥斯达黎加是一个活火山国家,一共有112座火山,其中5座为活火山。火山活动又科科斯板块和加勒比板块地壳相互作用产生。课程将分析火山形成的过程,喷发模式,产生物质,活动周期,对环境和人类造成的积极和消极的影响。将在哥斯达黎加火山现场进行学习,如 Irazú, Arenal 和 Turrialba火山。

EP 350: Introduction to Nature Video and Photography

自然风光摄影

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations -Friday to Sunday).

60小时,4学分。野外考察(周五至周日两个不同地点的野外考察)

Costa Rica is an active volcanic country, with 112 volcanoes and 5 active. The volcanism results from the interaction of the Cocos and Caribbean tectonic plates. The course will analyze the processes by which volcanoes are formed, types of eruptions, products, cycle of activity and periodicity, positive and negative impacts on the environment and for humans. Cases will be studied about active volcanoes in Costa Rica, such as the Irazú, Arenal and Turrialba.

哥斯达黎加独特的野生动物和独特的生态多样性为摄影爱好者提供天然场所。该课程将提供技术、设备、场景、植物摄影、动物摄影、大小格式。学生的摄影作品在课程结束是将被展示和评级。

EP 370: Geography of Costa Rica

哥斯达黎加地理

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations -Friday to Sunday).

60小时,4学分。野外考察(周五至周日两个不同地点的野外考察)

Costa Rica has only 52000 km2of land mass. However, it is one of the most diverse countries in the world. Biodiversity is the result of geographic diversity. In a very little territory the course will show the students the variety of environments and natural formations, from the marine coastal areas to the Chirripó peak (3800 m).  Genesis of mountain ranges, valleys, rivers, lakes and estuarine systems will be studied. Climate diversity in Costa Rica associated to its geography will be analyzed. 

哥斯达黎加仅有52000平方米土地面积,但是世界上最多元的国家之一。生态多样性是多元化地貌造成的。该课程将给同学们展示在有限的领土上多样化的环境和自然形态,从海洋海岸区域到Chirripó高峰(3800米)。将学习山脉起源,山谷,河流,湖泊和河口系统。分析哥斯达黎加气候多元化和地理的关系。

Sustainability Program (SP)

可持续性项目

SHORT COURSES (2 weeks)

短期课程(2周)

SP 301: Environmental Evaluation and Development Planning

环境评估和发展规划

40 contact hours, 3 credits, no lab.

40小时,3学分,无野外考察

English taught course. Guides the student through the diverse methodologies for environmental evaluation in order to guarantee the reduction of negative impacts. Case studies will be analyzed, both regionally as well as from local experience. The environmental law and associated regulation will be studied and explained in the context of sustainable development for project planning.

英文授课。指导学生对用多样的方式对环境进行评估,尽量减少负面影响。从区域和当地经验进行案例分析。以项目规划可持续发展的角度分析和解释相关环境法律法规。

SP 320: Sustainable Tourism

持续旅游

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations -Friday to Sunday).

60小时,4学分。野外考察(周五至周日两个不同地点的野外考察)

Tourism has been and still represents a pillar for the Costa Rican economy. Ecotourism, large scale tourism, rural tourism, community tourism, medical tourism, are different models of hosting people in a country. Some of this models are key for the economic growth of cities and rural communities. The course analyzes how to carry this out minimizing the potential impacts associated to tourism.

旅游业一直以来都是哥斯达黎加的经济支柱。生态旅游,大规模旅游,郊区旅游,社区旅游,医疗旅游,在一个国家而言都是不同的接待模式。其中一些模式是城市和郊区社区经济增长的关键。该课程学习如何最小化旅游带来的潜在负面影响。

SP 330: Principles of Sustainable Agriculture

可持续农业的原则

60 contact hours, 4 credits.

Lab (field work at two different locations -Friday to Sunday).

60小时,4学分。野外考察(周五至周日两个不同地点的野外考察)

Food security has been an ongoing challenge for humans. Traditional agricultural practices have proven to be severely impacting for the environment and with little social impact. This course analyses the new trends for sustainable agriculture such as organic, hydroponic, water saving systems, soil management, sedimentation control, organic pesticides, optional markets, composting, polyculture, holistic agriculture.

食品安全对人类是个不断的挑战。传统的农业实践已被证实对环境的一些负面影响和社会影响。该课程分析可持续农业的新趋势,如有机农业、水耕法、节水系统、土壤管理,沉积控制、有机农药、期货买卖、堆肥、混养、整体农业。

SP 360: Sustainable Development Goals and Conservation of Natural Resources

可持续发展目标和自然资源保护

40 contact hours, 3 credits. No Lab.

40小时,3学分,无实验

The course will be based on an analysis of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and tackle climate change by 2030 (UNDP, 2015). Emphasis will be placed on those that deal directly with the management of natural resources and its relationship to sustainable livelihoods. It includes an analysis of innovative options, clean technologies and natural solutions for climate change adaptation needed to improve the state of natural resources and the quality of life of humans. The main challenges and conditions (enabling environment, public participation mechanisms, institutional and legal frameworks, good governance arrangements, etc.) needed in Central American countries for meeting these goals, will be discussed.

该课程将基于2015年颁布的2030年(UNDP,2015)17可持续发展目标进行分析,终结贫困、抗议不平等和不公平和解决气候变化。重点将介绍如何直接对自然资源进行管理和自然资源和可持续家畜的关系。包括创新选择分析、清洁技术和自然解决方案应用于气候变化用来提高自然资源的状态和人类的生活质量。讨论中美洲国家在达到这些目标面临的主演挑战和条件(有利环境、公共参与机制、制度和法律框架、好的监管设置等)